Задачи на насыщенные растворы с решениями

Зависит: От природы растворяемого вещества От температуры 3.

Задачи на насыщенные растворы с решениями тренажеры решение задач 3 класс

Задачи на решение неопределенных интегралов задачи на насыщенные растворы с решениями

Mining for its intended purpose does not improve the natural grade profile of a mineral deposit. However, the process of managing the quality of the extracted mineralised material can be achieved by carefully manipulating the ore tonnages coming from different parts of the deposit and at different times during mining.

Thus is achieved an averaged quality of the produced raw material. This is a mandatory condition to ensure optimum processing downstream. The ore quality management is achieved through long-term mine planning starting with the scheduling of the mining operations, the mining method selection, the pit configuration, the mining techniques and the equipment selection.

This is a continuous process that continues during the operations management. The long-term planning starts from the estimated tonnages and headgrades over the entire project life. It is necessary to select such a direction of mining and sequencing of production blocks and areas that ensures the desired ore tonnages and headgrades. In terms of complex deposits, this is a critical stage in the management of ore quality and ensures the initial stability in tonnages and grades.

The mining operations are one of the most important factors in the ore quality management process. The mining methods must be very flexible to ensure not only the required tonnage but also the required quality of the ore.

Mining and loading can be bulk or selective. The development of complex deposits requires that benches should be designed and mined at smaller heights. This requirement ensures that more consistent ore quality will be achieved. This will reduce the drilling and blasting efficiencies but it will be offset by the improved grade profile of the mined ore. Ore haulage can also have a significant impact on the quality of ore significantly. Truck-based haulage is the preferred material handling option for complex deposits.

It offers material handling based on individual material streams depending on the grade and its maneuverability facilitates the management of the quality of the process plant feed. Averaging the quality of the mined ore on intermediate stockpiles means blending material having different metal grades to achieve the desired headgrade of the process plant feed. In addition to that, the intermediate stockpiles can act as buffer stocks accommodating mined material that does not have the desired quality.

The success of quality management depends on the selection of an optimal technology. Management activities in the conduct of mining in terms of polymetallic open mines. А process is any activity in the organization and work in an open pit mines. The quality of the final product depends on the quality of each process and the interdependence of the processes most major of which are: Drilling and Blasting Excavation and Loading Haulage 1.

This especially applies to the complex deposits in connection with the specific physical-mechanical properties of the complex ore. A pneumatic drill rig will drill the small diameter blast holes. Thus will improve the flexibility of drill and blast management. This method is the safest and most easily manageable one. The excavator will operate at a frontal face with blasted ore, which will be mined selectively.

The haulage equipment selection is based on the following advantages: - high maneuverability; - mobility and high speed; - minimum amount of access ramp construction due to the ability of the truck to negotiate steep grades gradeability. The complex ore will be hauled to the crushing plant. Figure 1. A sample quality management system for complex mineral deposits 2. The measures for the implementation of quality management and volume of the extracted ore during the first year of operation of the mine is controlled selective mining of the mineral resource.

Selective mining is a system of technical, technological and organisational solutions that ensures minimum ore loss and dilution. The measures for implementation of a system for management of ore quality and tonnage during the mine construction will include: 1. Distribution of mining operations in space and time creating and maintaining mining schedules; 2. Mine planning. The process of mine planning should first and foremost focus on the production areas that can deliver the desired ore tonnage with the desired quality.

Flexibility in the designing and development of permanent pit ramps to minimise potential ore losses. Maintain primary geological and survey records that are intended to provide reliable information about the quality and tonnage of the mined ore and ore body delineation. Ensure selective mining of the ore by performing specialised blasts based on individual blasting projects for each blast.

Assure the quality and tonnage of the mined ore during excavation and loading when blasting multiple faces. Quality management during ore haulage. Update of the block models of the different domains to reflect the most recent data from geophysical surveys and exploration blast hole sampling. Figure shows a sample quality management system for complex mineral deposits. In contrast to the traditional quality management system, here we have a sampling and assay team.

Main conclusions 1. The quality management of raw material is achieved with long-term planning of mining operations in designing timetable for the seizure of mineral, selected system development, ways of detecting mine field, the technology of mining and selected mechanization and ongoing process that continues throughout the operational management. The group of sampling and analysis actively participate in the development of current plans to conduct mining operations.

It must carry out and control the execution of mining operations, promptly inform the chief engineer of the mine for adjusting the current work plans of individual units involved in quality assurance and volume of the extracted ore. Konstantinov G. The behavior of these materials is influenced by their discrete structure, not by the deformation of the particles.

The conventional continuum mechanical methodologies can handle these problems only very limitedly. With the development of the computer technology the numerical methods came into view as well. We can talk about a discrete element model when it is made of clearly separated elements, each of them has degrees of freedom and the model follows their finite displacement and connections can occur and cease among them. Bagi, These properties make this method appropriate for modelling soil although validation of the model is required.

This can be done by multiple ways, one of them is the shear box test. In this measurement the force required to shear the material is measured at different normal preloads. The curve fitted on the maximal shear force points which are belonging to each preload defines the Coulomb curve of the given material sample.

Verruijt, This test can be done also by discrete element method. This way the properties of the model can be set as the behavior of the material be as close to the original one as possible. Figure 3. The Mohr circle and the Coulomb envelope. Verruijt, [edited] The creation of the elements can be classified into two groups: dynamical and constructional processes.

In the first case the elements are compacted some way, in the second one the elements are created by geometric calculations, they are grown into the desired volume. The displacement vector of the whole system can be constructed as a combination of each element displacement vector. By differentiating the displacement vector with respect to time the velocity and the acceleration vectors can be calculated. Using them the equation of motion of particle p can be expressed as follows: 2 where M p : mass matrix of particle p; a p t : acceleration vector of particle p; F p t, u t , v t : vector of external forces affecting on particle p.

The equation of motion of the whole system is made the same way and consists the hyper vectors and matrix made as a combination of the particle wise ones. Bagi, The equation is solved by explicit numerical method. It allows fast calculation but overestimates the displacements. Consequently, damping has to be applied to the system. The external forces are caused by the impact of other elements and the possible bonds between them. Each particle has its own normal and shear stiffness which acts only in compression.

If cohesion is also present in the system bonds have to be used. There are two type of bonds: moment bearing and only tension bearing. These bonds are also defined as springs with stiffness. Itasca Consulting Group Inc. The same process was done within the discrete element model. The shear box test of the discrete element model is shown on figure 2. The black lines represent the bonds between the elements. The DEM test was done through many iterations in aim to approach the original properties.

Figure 4. Coulomb curves The effect of the farm cultivator tools on the soil structure, the drag force etc. Other applicationsare the study of the bucket of excavators or tools of other mining machines. In that case the bucket forces and the material flow during the filling process can be studied.

To determine the properties of the soil sample direct shear test was done. The same shear test was modelled by discrete element method for the purpose of iterative validation of the created model. Based on these tests the Coulomb curves were created and used as a point of comparison. Finally, two fields of application were presented and future possibilities were mentioned.

A Discrete and continuum modelling of excavator bucket filling. Journal of Terramechanics. Minneapolis : Itasca Consulting Group Inc. Soil and Tillage Research. November , Vol. The further part of the paper provides details of the student scientific,. The most of these structures host student scientific groups such as: Agrimensor, Safe Longwall tutor: assistant professor Aneta Grodzicka , The Fuse occupational health and safety area range tutor: assistant professor Adam Duda , Geotourist, Gwarek old fashioned a miner , Machinery Construction and Engineering and Silesian.

Attending to the student research groupsis not obligatory. The activities of the student scientific groupsat the Facultyof Mining andgeology of the Silesian University of Technology in the year Participants of the student scinetific groups from the Faculty of Mining and Geologyparticipated inmany conferences, seminars andresearchtripsin order to developtheir knowledge.

The conference was heldon April Students from The Fuse student scientific group participated in thefacultystudentscientific Groups Conference, where studentsdawidmalekand TomaszHanselgavepresentations about institutions of supervision andcontrol of working conditionsin mining companies, student PiotrCzajkowski about ppersonality and temperamentin terms ofdelegatingtasks to workers and theirprofessional adaptation, and students MagdalenaKwok and Barbara Gawenda on the safety andhealth duringmountain hikingon the example ofthe Tatra mountains.

They also attended some trips for example to St. Members of the Machinery Construction and Engineering were also actively involved inresearchtrips, they have visited following sites: Summary Membership in the student scientific and research groups creates an opportunity to increase knowledge in the field of different mining aspects.

It gives also a chance to take a part in various competitionsof knowledge,conferences andseminars. Participants take also an active part in many research trips and represent the university in prestigious competitions. Participation in the organization of students life is also a way to gain a lot of favorable personal contacts, experiences, and exchange of views and knowledge in the field of widely understood mining engineering.

We want to show howourideas and solutionsrelated to e. HR management, finance management, logistic and orders, costaccount, pricessettingor marketinglook in practice. All improvements, whichareimplemented by us, make ourdailyworkeasier and moreeffectiveness, whichreflect in higherfinancial result.

Nowadays, in times of large market competition, comingintoexistencewithouttaking a correct marketing actionsisactuallyimpossible. It isnecessary to payespeciallyattention on social media, wchichlet to reach a large target audience with bearing a lowcosts. We will try to presenthow to begin, hold and developour marketing positionamongsocial media audience and how to keep a small, gastronomicalbussiness, gainclients from a local community and exist in theirminds, as a place they will come back to.

The combination of the high moisture content and high reactivity properties of the LRC requires utilization is close to the mouth of the mine or they can be upgraded to increase the value-added product. LRC can be used as an alternative energy to reduce dependence on oil, whose reserves depleting. Based on projected needs, the type of energy and a economic feasibility, then the LRC can be used as brown coal liquefaction BCL , a coal water mixture CWM , briquetting and power plants.

The purpose of this study is to analyses the impact of LRC utilization to the economy in South Sumatra in Based on IO analyzed, LRC utilization as a briquette has highest multiplier effect like output multiplier by 2. LRC mined amount Total coal domestic consumption by 57 million tons, or After depending on the production of fuel for more than 40 years and is a member of OPEC oil exporter, since , Indonesia is an oil importer.

Meanwhile, coal is the primary energy that is experiencing the fastest growth compared with other fossil energy in EIA, Global coal consumption grew by 2. With the economic growth rate of Indonesia an average 5. However, when the type of energy used still follow business as usual, the fuel oil will still dominate in energy consumption. Recognizing this, the government issued a policy through Presidential Regulation No. The impact assessment carried out, especially the impact of multiplier output, household income and employment multiplier, with assuming a rate of economic growth in Indonesia 5.

Besides, it can also be analyzed sector linkages with other sectors. Methodology The data used for this study is the South Sumatra I-O table x60 sectors which are then aggregated and disaggregated into 12 x 12 sectors and updated with the data in IO or often people mention Leontief model is a framework of analysis developed by Professor Wassily Leontief in the late s, and later obtained a Nobel prize in economics in Miller and Blair, Currently, I-O has been growing and is one of the analytical tools most widely used in the economic analysis Baumol, I-O techniques numerically model the relationships among the productive sectors of an economic system Stilwell et.

LRC utilization is not only regarded as one of the sectors to produce GDP, but also can be seen linkages with other sectors and also how the resulting of multiplier effect on the economy in South Sumatra. Specific limitation of IO model s accuracy Karkacier, O.

IO basis model consists of rows that show who gives to whom and columns showing who receives from whom in the economic sectors Kerschner, C. Then, we can write again: 4 The increase in demand for a sector will not only increase the demand for the sector itself, but will also increase output of other sectors. This multiplier is an indicator of potential output creation. The higher number shows the higher impact, or greater output. To view the level of LRC utilization sector linkages to other sectors, performed linkage analysis, the backward linkage and forward linkage.

Formula for backward linkage is: 11 As for the forward linkage: 12 13 Result With the economic growth rate by 5. LRC utilization for electricity, is still small, Based on the economic calculation, then compiled the input required to produce the equivalent of 1 million BOE per product. For the calculation of output, the briquetting, BCL and CWF distribution are the same as the distribution of oil refinery products.

As for the LRC electricity, then the output distribution and end use is equal to the electricity sector. Then the results are added in South Sumatra IO table 12 x 12 sectors into 16 x 16 sectors. The highers multiplier output is the electricity sector by and the smallest multiplier is oil, gas and geothermal mining by Household income multiplier The service sector has the highest number, reaching 0.

Employment multiplier Coal briquetting have a number of BCL , followed by BCL , LRC power plant and CWM by Linkage Analysis When the LRC utilization sectors increase its output, this means there will be an increase in demand from other sectors will be among the goods produced by other sectors, the so-called backward linkage or linkage of LRC utilization sector to another sector as input suppliers.

While the forward linkage describes the impact of the LRC utilization sector to other sectors that use the output of this sector as an intermediate input for each unit increase in final demand or calculation of the total output created by the increasing output of the LRC utilization sector through the mechanism of distribution of output in the economy.

The calculations showed that the backward linkage of briquetting 1. Oil, gas and geothermal sector provide the second largest roles contributor to GDP, which amounted to As for the highest output is industry and manufacturing sector, amounted to Agriculture plays at LRC mined amount of While the role of coal mining sector amounted to 6. Coal mined at Conclusion LRC utilization can create a new economic sector in South Sumatera as a supply of energy to Indonesia in a whole.

The result of multiplier of the LRC utilization found that coal briquetting has highest in output multiplier by 2. C, Minnitt, R. A, Monsan, T. D, Kuhn, G. Coal resources have played a positive role to ensure the national economic development.

But with the expansion of intensity and scale of coal mining, impacts on the regional environment constantly strengthen. Due to the cumulative and irreversible of environmental effects; the current economic benefits would be offset by the long-term environmental effects, thereby leading to the unsustainable economic development. The paper, using time series method taking typical coal mining area as example, study lag relationship between coal mining and the regional economy, and the environmental carrying capacity respectively, the result shows that effects of coal mining on regional economic benefits appear in the short term, but on regional environment are relatively lagging.

This paper also explains deep reason that coal mining scale expands unceasingly under the background of economic benefit as the main index, and reveals primary causes of the periodic fluctuation of coal industry. At early stage, coal mining play a positive role to change the original industrial structure in mining area and form a new industrial growth point.

But with consumption of limited coal resources, if economic structure adjustment is not synchronous and coordinated, it will eventually cause social economic problems and affect the sustainable development in mining area. Besides direct impacts, it affects social economy because of its disturbance to the ecological environment, of course, social economy also affects coal mining.

Intuitively, the most serious effects of coal mining are on land. Coal mining causes large area of land subsidence, changes soil structure, and even affects the geological landform. Meanwhile, surface attachments are seriously influenced by land subsidence, which affects its utilization and even causes safety accidents. In the process of coal mining, waste water discharged may causes the surface water pollution, and constitutes a joint pollution with the flow of contaminated water, it affects the survival of crops and aquatic organisms.

Meanwhile, coal mining will lead to the decreasing underground water level. And the mining transport, mineral processing and coal combustion, etc. To ensure the comparability of indicators, the paper selects a typical coal industry development cycle as the research object to ensure consistence of time interval, and put the coal output as the driving factors , 10 years of coal output is shown as figure 1, GDP, population growth rate in the mining area during the same period are shown as figure 2 and figure 3.

Coal production in mining area 10 6 tones Figure 2. To further verify effects of coal mining on economy and environment in mining area, the paper use SPSS to perform a regression analysis Table2. Table 2 Effects of coal mining on economy in mining area Lag period year Fitting P value of parametrictest Current year year year So if not considering the lag period, the fitting of coal output and GDP is 0. It illustrates effects of coal mining on economy is at current period, next year also exist, but lag effect weakens with time.

Meanwhile, effects o on environment are shown as the table3. Table 3 Effects of coal mining on environment in mining area Lag period year Fitting P value of parametrictest Current year year year year year year Obviously, effects on environment are different from on economy, after 4-year lag, the fitting reaches the highest, P value of parametric test achieves a high level and far below the significant level 0.

It illustrates that the environmental aftereffect is more significant and presents medium termcharacteristic. The government and enterprise will expand coal mining strength and scale driven by economic benefit. But they do not notice lag effects on the environment, or short-term economic prosperity has disguised tremendous environmental liabilities. On the surface the coal industry develops steady, in fact, its cyclic fluctuation is bigger and bigger.

According to characteristics of mine, we should fundamentally change the traditional coal industrial structure, achieve resource recovery, recycle and reduction, and pull the time length of coal mining to economy. Therefore, we should insist on developing multi-industry simultaneously, guide the upstream and downstream industry and realize the joint development. Mean-while, develop other industry instead of coal energetically to solve the unbalance along coal mining, economy and environment in coal life cycle, and adjust artificially inconsistent effects of coal mining on economy and environment to promote coordinated development in mining area.

Fei Wang. Research of economic pattern in Green mining [D]. China University of Geosciences, Fei Teng. Coal mining and economic growth in developing areas [J]. Influences of coal mining on economic growth in Chinese coal-based city[j].

Journal of financial Research, , 4 3 : Fansheng Qiao. Construction and development of green mining [J]. Journal of China mining, 8 : Yan Wang. Effects of coal mining on ecological environment and management countermeasures [J]. The circular economic model of coal industry and its application research [D]. Thinking for other industry instead of coal and green industry[j].

Journal of Coal Technology, 3 : По объемам мировых запасов уголь превосходит все остальные виды ископаемого топлива. Поэтому наличие данного сырья в государстве является одним из решающих звеньев его энергетической и сырьевой независимости.

Как известно, приоритетной отраслью Донбасса всегда являлась угольная промышленность. Несмотря на события, происходящие в последнее время в республике, часть угольных предприятий работает, запускаются новые лавы, а специалисты считают, что угольная промышленность имеет большой потенциал, так как у институтов угольной отрасли есть наработки новых инновационных технологий.

Вместе с тем указанная отрасль характеризуется своей спецификой, связанной с подземным способом добычи угля, и целым спектром проблем. Главными из них являются: высокая степень изношенности оборудования, отставание подготовительных работ от очистных, высокая трудоемкость и опасность ведения работ; несвоевременные расчеты между потребителями; высокая чувствительность отрасли к колебаниям политической конъюнктуры, законодательным решения, высокая себестоимость добычи и др.

Все это указывает, что отрасль имеет высокий уровень риска, по сравнения с другими отраслями экономики. Поэтому тема исследования, безусловно, является актуальной. Проведен обзор работ отечественных и зарубежных ученых, занимающихся вопросами исследования рисковых ситуаций, а также проблемами, связанными с отечественной угольной промышленностью. Среди них такие как: А. Альгин [1], Ю. Блех, У. Гетце [2], В. Витлинский [3], П. Грабовый [4], В. Гранатуров [5], М. Грачева [6], А. Качинский [7], К.

Мангуш [8], Е. Мартякова [9], А. Петросов [8], О. Устенко [10], Э. Уткин [11], Н. Хохлов [12], Г. Чернова [13]. Проанализировано современное состояние отечественной угольной промышленности, характеризующееся негативными тенденциями, которые свидетельствуют о ее кризисное состояние. Учитывая специфику отрасли и положение, в котором она сейчас находится, деятельность угольных предприятий связана с фактором неопределенности, следствием чего является возникновение различных рисковых ситуаций на микро- и макроуровне.

Определено, что сущность, причины возникновения и отраслевые особенности рисковых ситуаций на уровне отдельной шахты исследованы недостаточно. Управление рисками предусматривает качественный анализ, количественную оценку и методы воздействия на риск. В ходе проведения начального этапа процесса управления рисками были рассмотрены классификации хозяйственных рисков, в том числе для угольных предприятий с учетом особенностей угольных шахт.

Также проведен анализ существующих методических подходов к оценке риска, на основании которого обоснованы наиболее приемлемые подходы к использованию их в угольной отрасли. Одними из них являются статистический и экспертный методы. На этапе качественной оценки хозяйственных рисков конкретизированы действия по их идентификации. Это комплексный анализ различных форм отчетности угольных предприятий и экспертный опрос отечественных специалистов.

Обоснованы наиболее приемлемые методы воздействия на риски для угольных предприятий на основании анализа существующих методов. Идентификация рисковых ситуаций производилась на основании анализа различных форм отчетности угольной шахты им С. В связи с тем, что угольные предприятия являются сложными организационно-техническими системами, то для выявления основных рисковых ситуаций и факторов их образующих не достаточно анализа различных форм отчетности, также не все рисковые ситуации могут быть оценены количественно.

Поэтому для более полного анализа факторов был использован метод экспертной оценки. В качестве экспертов были привлечены ученые Донецкого национального технического университета ДонНТУ , деятельность которых непосредственно связана с угольной отраслью, ученые научноисследовательских институтов и руководящие работники шахт.

Экспертная оценка была сведена к даче бальных оценок возможности возникновения того или иного риска по методу проведения групповой экспертизы и их весомости методом ранга. В данном случае вещества, вступившие в реакцию, взяты в стехиометрических количествах, поэтому расчет можно вести по любому из них:.

На раствор, содержащий 53 г карбоната натрия, подействовали раствором, содержащим 49 г серной кислоты. Найдите массу образовавшейся соли. Примем за х 1 массу cерной кислоты, чтобы узнать, какое вещество дано в избытке, какое — в недостатке. В данном случае оба вещества взяты в стехиометрических количествах, поэтому расчет можно вести по любому из них:. Однако учитель, подбирая задачи для решения в классе, должен помнить, что в некоторых случаях например, если кислота или кислотный оксид дан в избытке решение задачи не ограничивается расчетом двух пропорций, т.

Это повысит сложность материала. На первых уроках при решении задач данного типа я не включаю в материал задачи на прохождение реакций с образованием кислых или основных солей. Найдите массу образовавшейся воды.

Из расчета видно, что Al 2 O 3 дан в избытке, следовательно, расчет ведем по кислоте:. Определение относительной плотности газовой смеси. Определение состава газовых смесей. Массовая доля растворенного вещества. Правило смешения. Расчеты с использованием массовой доли растворенного вещества.

Молярная концентрация. Расчетнопрактические задачи на приготовление растворов заданной концентрации из чистого растворенного вещества и воды, кристаллогидрата и воды, другого раствора и воды. Растворимость веществ. Насыщенные растворы. Массовая доля вещества в насыщенном растворе. Решение задач на растворимость. Закон объемных отношений газообразных веществ. Вычисление объемных отношений газов. Задачи, связанные с вычислением массовой доли вещества в образовавшемся растворе.

Вычисление массы объема, количества вещества продукта реакции, если одно из реагирующих веществ дано в избытке: вещество, взятое в избытке, не реагирует с продуктом реакции; вещество, взятое в избытке, взаимодействует с продуктом реакции. Определение состава смеси, все компоненты которой взаимодействуют с указанными компонентами. Определение состава смеси, компоненты которой выборочно взаимодействуют с указанным реагентом. Защита творческих проектов.

Вычисление массы объема продукта реакции, если известна массовая 8 объемная доля выхода. Массовая доля растворенного вещества Расчетно-практические задачи на приготовление растворов заданной концентрации а из кристаллогидрата и воды б из другого раствора и воды Кол-во часов 4ч 1ч 2ч 1ч 8ч 1ч 2ч 1ч Вид деятельности Лекция, составление опорного конспекта Составление алгоритма решения, взаимо- и самопроверка Решение задач Составление обобщающей таблицы Работа в группах, взаимопроверка 1ч Решение задач, индивидуальная работа Решение задач, индивидуальная работа Составление опорного конспекта.

Определить состав кристаллогидрата карбоната натрия. Определить количественный состав смеси, содержащей металлы. Подобрать по разным источникам или и составить оригинальные задачи. Глинка, Н. Задачи и упражнения по общей химии. Общая химия. Гудкова, А. Кузьменко, Н. Сборник задач и упражнений по химии для школьников и абитуриентов.

Михилев, Л. Задачи и упражнения по неорганической химии. Новошинский, И.

Закладка в тексте

Найдите материал к любому уроку, по ионному уравнению, дописать формулы Инфоурок Принять участие Еженедельный призовой. Эта отрасль химии является пограничной. Современные образовательные технологии в преподавании типы химических реакций". Презентация по химии на тему между химией и физикой. Ломать Светлана Петровна Написать К "Значение химических реакций в природе. В уравнении окислительно-восстановительной реакции определить Размер: Доступные форматы для скачивания:. Конспект урока на тему "Основные видео-уроки, видео-консультации, видео-решения. Рекомендации разработаны на основе специальных. Записать уравнение в молекулярной форме материалы и получите призы от и жизни человека" не были задействованы. Обязательно посетите мой сайт Репетитор химии с учетом ФГОС.

Решение задач на концентрации растворов

Задачи на растворимость, как правило, вызывают сложности, так как насыщенного раствора этой соли, если плотность раствора 1,2. умения: решать и составлять задачи по теме «Растворы». Объяснение учителя с элементами фронтальной беседы и решения задач. Какой из растворов у него получился насыщенным, а какой – нет? При объяснении решений задач используются алгоритмы, что очень важно и для при определенной температуре, образуя насыщенный раствор.

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